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This guide from the FAO provides small scale or backyard farmers information on how best to feed your pigs including diets, equipment and regime. While much of the information will be applicable elsewhere, please be aware that every country has its own rules regarding feeding animals, e. You must ensure your practices are in line with official regulations in your own region. Good feed is necessary for growth, body maintenance and the production of meat and milk.
You can use locally available feeds that are less expensive, but can be nutritionally complete when properly prepared. The nutritional needs of pigs can be divided into six or classes. These are water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Vegetable, fruit or bread scraps that have been not in contact with animal products or by-products if they are properly cooked. Restaurant leftovers, food transporter and disposers of food waste products if they are properly cooked. Forest Products including wild vegetables, wild bananas, wild cola — cassia, yam, forage grasses etc. Alcohol distilling residues: local alcohol can be made from millet, rice, maize, sweet potato, banana, etc.
Any meat products: includes pies, sausage rolls, bacon and cheese rolls, pizza, salami and other delicatessen meats and table scraps without proper cooking and screening. Any carcass or part of a carcass of any mammal or bird raw and uncooked. This includes any meat blood, offal, hide or feathers. Pigs that feed on carcasses are also at risk of contracting diseases that are contagious to humans. Any substance that has come into contact with a prohibited substance via collection, storage or transport in a contaminated container, such as meat trays and take away food containers.
The Pig Site's partners Biomin have written an excellent article on Feeding Piglets which includes a details section on creep feed. Good pig feed contains sufficient energy, protein, minerals and vitamins. Distillery waste is much appreciated in traditional pig husbandry, especially for pigs. It is advisable, however, not to give this high valued feed to pregnant and lactating sows or to piglets and weaners, simply because of the alcohol content in the waste.
Rice Bran: This is very suitable for pig feeding. However, it can be kept for no longer than 1 month because it will become mouldy. Broken Rice: This is also very suitable for pig feeding. Maize: Thisis a very good animal feed. Soybeans: This is a crop that has a high nutritional value and is very good for pig feeding.
Wheat Bran: Thisis particularly rich in dietary fibre and contains ificant quantities of carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Wheat Bran is widely used as a major component in animal feed. Ipil : Leucaena and Acacia are traditional, locally available tree-crops, and the leaves are rich in protein. After drying, they can be mixed and fed to pigs with other feeds. First, the crop should be peeled and washed and then sliced, dried and ground before use. It should not be fed to pigs as raw cassava with the skin, due to the toxic substances present.
The sliced and dried cassava can be kept for longer. Fruits: Fruits damaged during transportation, storage and handling are used as supplementary feeds for pigs by boiling and mixing with other feed such as rice bran, broken rice and maize. They can also be given fresh. Suitable fruits include: bananas, papaya, apples, pears, and melons. Vegetables: Vegetables damaged during transportation, storage and handling are also used as supplementary feeds for pigs by boiling and mixing with other feeds such as rice bran, broken rice and maize. Suitable vegetables include: cabbage, lettuce, spinach, morning glory, sweet potato vine, cola-cassia needs boilingpumpkin, guords, and water hyacinth.
Green Soya bean plant : A reach source of vegetable protein. Leaves and stems have a good composition with high crude protein content Chayote: Both the fruit vegetable and the seed are rich in amino acids and vitamin C, potassium, phosphorus and calcium.
Fruit is very low in calories 12 Looking to pork to a porker per g on averageand chayote contains 0. Banana Stem: The best way of feeding fresh green banana or plantain fruits is to chop them and sprinkle some salt on the slices since the fruits are very low in organic nutrients.
Cattle and pigs relish this material. For ensiling purposes, the chopped green bananas or plantains are preferred to the ripe fruits which lose some of their dry matter and, in particular, their sugars during ensiling. Similarly, green fruits are more easily dried than ripe fruits which are very difficult to completely dehydrate.
Pumpkin: Pumpkin is a good source of the vitamin B group, while a large proportion of these vitamins is lost during the preparation of the protein concentrate and isolates. Bottle gourd: There are important nutritional values in grams of bottle gourd, such as:. It develops a waxy coating when it matures. Unopened, the winter melon can typically be stored for up to 12 months, but after it is cut open, it can only be stored for a single week. Phosphorus is 0. It grows well in poor soil and can be fed directly to pigs without being cooked unlike forest plants.
Alfalfa: Althoughlow in fibre, alfalfa is palatable to pigs as well as being easily digestible. It is the best nutritional package you can put into the rations you use to feed your livestock, dairy cattle, poultry or pigs.
Berseem: It is very palatable and is relished by all livestock. There has never been a case of bloat reported if accidentally given an excess amount. Different feeds are mixed and boiled to make pig feed more palatable. There are 2 types of traditional processing:.
Pig feed can also be prepared with forest products wild vegetables, wild bananas, wild cola — cassia etc. At the same time, food waste can Looking to pork to a porker used as well. Currently, growing legumes as feed for village pig production is having a big impact on the livelihoods of rural families in Nepal. Local alcohol can be made from millet, rice, maize, sweet potato, bananas, and similar. Most popular for pig feeding is distillery wastes from millet. Yet, these animals require a high quality of feed and therefore distillery waste needs to be replaced by other high quality feed such as commercial feeds.
Local alcohol can be made from millet, rice, maize, sweet potato, yam Phul Tarulbanana, etc. Yet, these animals require high quality of feed and therefore distillery waste needs to be replaced by other high quality feed like commercial feeds. For growing or finishing pigs all ration changes should be made gradually.
If this is not possible the feeding level of the new diet should be low until the pigs become accustomed to it. Where post-weaning scours are a major problem, restricted feeding during the first week after weaning may reduce the incidents of scours. For treatment in case of an outbreak of scouring, medication through drinking water is preferable since sick pigs go off feed. NB: When feeding animals any sudden changes can lead to loss of production.
Thus feed changes should be as gradual as possible. The feeding trough should be firmly anchored to the floor to prevent overturning and wasting of feed. The size of the feeding trough for different ages and purposes is given in the table below.
Good pig appetite is important. Pigs will eat more fresh clean feed than feed that is contaminated, stale or moldy. To ensure proper intake of nutrition clean feed troughs daily. Sufficient feeder space is necessary, so that each pig can eat what it wishes every day. Pigs must also be fed on time, since it makes them familiar to the feeding regime.
Pigs need to be fed according to their sizes and ages. Troughs must be anchored so they cannot be turned over. The feeding trough can also be used to supply water. At large farms automatic drinkers are used called bowls or nipples. By not providing enough water for your pigs you will reduce their daily feed intake. Ample clean water must be available for your pigs to drink at all times. The first several hours post-farrowing is a critical time not just for newborn piglets but also for the sow. Water is as important for the growth and health of pigs as feed.
Anti-nutritional factors in soy protein pose a risk to young animal health. But it is possible to minimize the factors t…. What can you feed your pig? Commercially prepared swine rations from grain, fruit and vegetable from markets Vegetable, fruit or bread scraps that have been not in contact with animal products or by-products if they are properly cooked.
Any fish products and bones. The excreta droppings of any mammal or bird Any substance that has come into contact with a prohibited substance via collection, storage or transport in a contaminated container, such as meat trays and take away food containers. A combination of protein source, milk replacer, vitamins, amino acids and rich feed ingredients makes this complete feed the ideal start for young healthy piglets.
Feed ingredients in descending order: corn, soya bean meal, barley, wheat bran, vegetable protein, oilseeds extracts, fatty acids, feed phosphate, pig vitamins, and trace minerals. Creep feed about 20g per piglet per day or a good home-made mixture with fine rice bran, broken rice and milled maize grains. Clean drinking water must always be available.
Bottle gourd: There are important nutritional values in grams of bottle gourd, such as: Energy - 12 kacl Moisture - 96g Protein - little Fat - little Carbohydrates - 2g Fibre - 1g Calcium - 20mg Iron - little Phosphorus - 10 mg Winter melon Wax Gourd, White Gourd, Ash Gourd : The Winter Melon is a very large gourd that can grow to up to 50lbs or more. Traditional Feed Processing Different feeds are mixed and boiled to make pig feed more palatable. There are 2 types of traditional processing: Mixing all the different feeds together rice bran, broken rice, crushed maize and soya, dried legume leaves, etc.
Cooking the different raw materials together to improve digestibility, and to breakdown toxins from some feeds such as raw cola-cassia, banana stem, maize and soya grains, beans, kitchen waste, forage crops, and similar. Food waste or garbage fed to swine must be cooked Looking to pork to a porker sterilized properly. Feeding Forest Products Pig feed can also be prepared with forest products wild vegetables, wild bananas, wild cola — cassia etc. Feeding Alcohol Distilling Residues Local alcohol can be made from millet, rice, maize, sweet potato, bananas, and similar.
Give lactating sows 2. Boars : Give boars 2. If the boar is regularly used increase this to 2. Piglets : Give creep pellets 0. The feed should be mixed with sow and weaner meal the last one week before weaning.Looking to pork to a porker
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