Looking for experienced white 45 male to dominate

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Among men, depression is often unrecognised and untreated. Men employed in male-dominated industries and occupations may be particularly vulnerable. However, efforts to develop tailored workplace interventions are hampered by lack of prevalence data. A systematic review of studies reporting prevalence rates for depression in male dominated workforce groups was undertaken.

Twenty studies met these criteria. Prevalence of depression ranged from 0. Five studies reported ificantly lower prevalence rates for mental disorders among male-dominated workforce groups than comparison populations, while six reported ificantly higher rates. Eight studies additionally found ificantly higher levels of depression in male-dominated groups than comparable national data. Overall, the majority of studies found higher levels of depression among workers in male-dominated workforce groups.

There is a need to address the mental health of workers in male-dominated groups. The workplace provides an important but often overlooked setting to develop tailored strategies for vulnerable groups. Recent years have seen increasing interest in men's health, including mental health and wellbeing.

There is growing recognition of the prevalence and implications of depression among men [1][2][3]. Although women have higher overall rates of depression [4]it is frequently unrecognized, undiagnosed, and untreated among men [5]. Given the ificant costs associated with mental illness [6][7]poor mental health among men represents a large and preventable impost upon society.

Looking for experienced white 45 male to dominate

Depression and bipolar disorders are among the main causes of disease and disability [8]. It is anticipated that by depressive disorders will become the one cause of ill health and premature death world-wide, ing for 6. The prevalence of mental disorders comes at a substantial financial cost. Depression and anxiety are also the most prevalent mental disorders in the working population [13] and a substantial proportion of costs associated with mental illness is due to lost workplace productivity.

Much of these lost productivity costs are directly associated with workforce absenteeism and presenteeism [16][17][18]. Traditional masculine norms and the stigma associated with mental illness can promote a culture whereby men are reluctant to acknowledge or seek help for mental health problems [7][19][20][21][22]. Although there is a higher prevalence of depression amongst women in the general population, men have lower levels of mental health literacy than women [23] and are less likely to visit their doctor [21][22]use mental health services [24]and discuss mental health issues [25].

Correspondingly, adverse consequences associated with poor mental health can be more severe among men, such as suicide [26]. Workplace factors can also contribute to poor mental health among men. Employment can promote wellbeing by providing regular activity, time structure, social contact, a sense of collective effort, and social identity [27].

However, the workplace can also be a source of psychological stress that can negatively affect employee mental health [28][29][30][31][32][33]. Male-dominated industries i. Accordingly, workers in some Australian male-dominated industries have been found to have disproportionately high rates of depression and mood disorders [4]. However, it is uncertain whether the prevalence of depression among men in male-dominated industries is consistent across countries. Such workplace programs are particularly relevant for mental health promotion targeting men. The workplace provides ready access to large s of men and contains existing infrastructure and frameworks that can support mental health and wellbeing strategies.

In addition, addressing mental health issues as part of wider occupational health, safety and wellbeing programs may create workplace norms that reduce stigma and facilitate help-seeking. Workplace programs can also target other barriers to mental health help-seeking behavior such as low levels of mental health literacy [35][36]. Moreover, the workplace offers an opportunity to develop tailored strategies that target specific high risk industries and occupations.

Such tailored strategies may be particularly beneficial for workers in male-dominated industries, due to the high prevalence of mental health problems in combination with low mental health literacy and a reluctance to seek help. While research is limited, there is some evidence that interventions in male-dominated industries can have a positive impact on the mental health of workers, particularly for high prevalence low severity disorders such as depression [37][38].

However, the development of tailored workplace strategies for men is hampered by a lack of prevalence data identifying high-risk workforce groups. While prevalence rates for depression are known to vary across different occupations and industries [39][40]it is not clear whether rates of these disorders are consistently elevated in workforce groups where men predominate. A better understanding of the prevalence of depression in industries and occupations with a high proportion of men could inform the development of appropriate policies and tailored workplace mental health interventions.

However, to date, no research has systematically examined the prevalence rates of common mental disorders, such as depression, amongst male workers employed in male-dominated workforce groups. In order to address this issue, a systematic review of literature was undertaken to determine the prevalence of depression amongst men employed in male-dominated industries and occupations. The review forms part of a larger program of work exploring risk factors for mental illness in male-dominated industries and effective intervention approaches [28][37]. Specifically, the following research questions were investigated:.

Is depression among male workers in male-dominated industries and occupations greater than in comparable populations? A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify and assess the findings and methodological rigor of relevant studies. Studies were excluded if they examined volunteers or migrant workers who were not citizens, or were government or industry reports [41] Table 1. In Australia, male-dominated industries include: agriculture forestry, fishing, and farmingconstruction, manufacturing, mining, transport, and utilities electricity, gas, water supply, and waste management [42].

Male-dominated occupations include: farming and forestry workers, laborers, production workers, tradespersons, and transport workers [43]. Similar industries and occupations are also classified as male-dominated in the USA [44][45] and most European countries [46]. Defense and emergency services police, ambulance, fire were excluded from the study due to the potential for confounding. Data on the and proportion of men employed in male-dominated industries and occupations for countries where studies were located are provided in Table 2.

The focus of the review was symptoms of depression that may require intervention. Symptoms of depression were indicated by positive screens on validated self-report instruments e. The former are Looking for experienced white 45 male to dominate to detect the likelihood of depression in a person, whilst the latter gather more detailed information from individuals on the potential presence and seriousness of depression. Further details of the measures used are shown in Table 3. These additional data were sourced from high quality representative surveys, and are presented in Table 3.

Where possible, z scores were calculated for both within study prevalence comparisons and general population prevalence levels in order to identify statistically ificant differences. Searches combined relevant MeSH and other database thesaurus headings, Boolean terms, and keywords.

Hand searches of study reference lists and searches of the grey literature were also conducted using conventional electronic search engines, such as Google. The main search terms used were:. Studies identified in the initial search underwent a two-stage screening process. Firstly, two reviewers screened each article title and abstract to remove duplicate and irrelevant studies. Secondly, the title and abstract were perused to assess whether the study was likely to meet the inclusion criteria.

For those studies meeting the inclusion criteria the full text was reviewed and assessed. A senior researcher checked all excluded studies. Flow diagram of study selection for systematic review of published research on the prevalence of depression in male-dominated industries and occupations. There is no standard tool for data extraction or for assessing study quality [78]. Guidelines such as the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [79] are deed for meta-analytic reviews. Examination of papers in this review indicated that a meta-analysis would not be appropriate.

Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement was therefore used as a guideline for data extraction from observational research, i. To ensure consistency in data extraction [81]a data extraction template and codebook were developed based on the Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [80] and covered: citation details, source of citation e. The template also allowed reviewers to make preliminary assessments of the information quality provided in the study well covered, poor, adequate, not addressed, not reported, or not applicable.

Data extraction were reviewed by all authors. The methodological rigor of the studies was evaluated against a modified version of a qualitative assessment tool for quantitative studies [82]. This tool was developed to assess the methodological quality of primary studies in public health [83]and is based on guidelines by Mulrow and colleagues [84] and Jadad and colleagues [85].

Guidelines provided in the tool dictionary assess the methodological adequacy of research against eight criteria. Studies were assessed in terms of the quality of prevalence data provided. This resulted in six criteria representativeness, study de, confounders, data Looking for experienced white 45 male to dominate, response rate, and analysis that were each assessed as being strong, moderate, or weak. Studies that obtained at least four ratings of strong, with no ratings of weak for any of the assessment criteria, were assessed as methodologically strong.

Looking for experienced white 45 male to dominate

Studies that obtained less than four strong ratings but no more than one weak rating for any of the assessment criteria were assessed as methodologically moderate. Studies that obtained two or more weak ratings for any of the assessment criteria were assessed as methodologically weak. A total of 20 studies met the inclusion criteria. A description of each study, together with the main findings concerning the prevalence short term and long term of depression is presented in Table 3.

The studies were undertaken in 10 countries: 1 four in Australia [6][17][60][72] ; 2 three Looking for experienced white 45 male to dominate the UK [39][61][64] ; 3 three in the USA [58][70][75] ; 4 three in France [56][57][68] ; 5 two in Japan [65][67] ; 6 one in Canada [76] ; 7 one in the Netherlands [55] ; 8 one in Denmark [40] ; 9 one in Finland [73] ; and one in Norway [69]. Labor force data on the total of male workers and male workers employed in male-dominated industries and occupations were available for eight countries see Table 2.

In these countries, the proportion of men employed in male-dominated industries and occupations as a percentage of the total workforce ranged from 7. The proportion of men employed in male-dominated industries and occupations as a percentage of all male workers ranged from In all eight countries, male-dominated industries and occupations i.

Three studies were assessed as methodologically strong [40][58][73] and nine as having moderate methodological rigor [17][39][55][57][65][68][69][70][76]. The remaining studies were assessed as methodologically weak Table 3. The prevalence of depression among male-dominated industries and occupations varied widely across studies, ranging from 0. Tests for differences in levels of depression between workers in male-dominated industries and within-study comparator groups were able to be conducted for 10 studies for the remaining 10 studies, within study comparisons could not be calculated.

Six male-dominated industries were found to have ificantly higher levels of depression than within-study comparison populations. These male-dominated industries included: machinists in the Netherlands [55]manual workers in France [57]low socioeconomic status SES manufacturing workers in Japan [65]and farmers in the UK [64] and Norway [69]. A of other male-dominated industries were found to have ificantly lower levels of depression or psychological distress than within study comparison populations.

One study also found lower levels of depression among Australian truck drivers [63]. However, UK normative data was used as the comparator, which may not be analogous to the Australian study population. One study found no differences in depression between workers in male-dominated industries and the total male population [57]. The findings of 10 studies were able to be compared to national prevalence data for depression, obtained for approximately the same time period as when the study was undertaken. Levels of depression which were ificantly higher than the national average were found among truck drivers and mining company workers in Australia [63][72]offshore mining company workers in Scotland [61]manufacturing workers in Japan [65][67]utility workers in France [68]farmers in the US [70]and agriculture, mining, and construction workers in Canada [76].

Looking for experienced white 45 male to dominate

Only two studies reported levels of depression among workers in male dominated industries which were ificantly lower than national prevalence data [58][73]. Overall, the majority of studies found higher levels of depression among workers in male-dominated industries when compared with either within study comparators or general population data. To examine prevalence patterns more closely, the available data were also grouped by the six identified male-dominated industries. Ten studies reported the prevalence of depression among agricultural workers Fig.

With one exception [56]the methodological rigor of these studies was strong or moderate. Prevalence of depression in agriculture ranged from 1. Agriculture workers were found to have higher rates of depression than comparison populations in three studies; however, the difference was ificant only in the Sanne and colleagues study [69]. Lower or equal rates of depression were found in three studies [56][73][76].

One study did not report comparisons [70]. Prevalence of depression in agriculture. Depression among construction workers was examined in two studies; one methodologically strong [58] and the other moderate [76]. Prevalence of depression among construction workers ranged from 2. Both studies reported inificant lower rates of depression in construction than in the comparison population Fig. Prevalence of depression in construction. Four studies examined depression among manufacturing workers; one was methodologically strong [58]two moderate [65][76]and one weak [67] Fig. Prevalence of depression among manufacturing workers ranged from 2.

One study reported ificantly lower levels of depression among manufacturing workers than workers in the comparison population [76] ; one found no ificant difference between the groups [65]and two were unable to be tested. Prevalence of depression in manufacturing. Depression in the mining industry was examined by two studies [61][72]both of which were methodologically weak.

Looking for experienced white 45 male to dominate

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