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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The qualitative data that were collected and analyzed during the current study is not publically available due to the identifiable nature of the data. Adolescent girls with a history of maltreatment are at heightened risk for health-risking behaviors, including unsafe sexual behaviors and drug use.
However, few studies have examined the views of this population in regard to sexual partner choice, sexual behaviors, and decisions to use drugs with sexual partners. We conducted 15 semistructured, open-ended qualitative interviews with young women ages 18—24 with a history of maltreatment and asked them to reflect on their experiences as adolescents.
We used the constant comparison method to group the qualitative coded data into themes.
Analysis of the interviews suggested that adolescent girls with maltreatment histories often report that they chose partners who are promotive of risky drug and sexual behavior. The interviews also provided insight into why this population is likely to use drugs with their partner and why they might be hesitant to talk about or practice safe sex with their partner. In our study we talked to young women who had been maltreated as adolescents and were subsequently placed in out-of-home treatment foster care or treatment facilities. This population is at heightened risk Girls y sex dodge unsafe sexual behavior and drug use.
We asked the young women how their romantic relationships influenced their sexual behavior and drug use when they were adolescents. The women told us how the partners they chose as adolescents often encouraged unsafe sex and drug use, and that they were often hesitant to talk to their partners about these issues. Through these interviews, we received insight into topics for practitioners to focus on when working with adolescents. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment are at heightened risk for engaging in multiple forms of health-risking behaviors, including unsafe sexual behaviors and drug use [ 1 — 6 ].
Young women in this population often bear more health burdens than do their male counterparts because of specific health consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, ectopic pregnancies and infertility [ 7 ]. Romantic partners defined as dating or sexual partners have a ificant impact on the sexual behaviors and drug use of adolescent girls with maltreatment histories [ 1213 ]. To help fill this gap, we sought to learn retrospectively about the partner experiences of adolescent girls with a history of maltreatment. Using a semistructured qualitative interview format, we asked young women to reflect on their experiences as adolescents and discuss the relationships they had with their partners.
We asked questions about how they Girls y sex dodge their partners and the impact their partners had on their sexual behavior and drug use. Problem behavior theory [ 15 ] suggests that young people who engage in one type of risky behavior in youth such as drug use, early or risky sexual behavior, and delinquent behaviors are more likely to also engage in other types of risky behavior. Findings from longitudinal studies of adolescents and young adults have confirmed that young people who engage in risky or problem behavior often engage in multiple types of such behavior [ 1516 ].
This theory guided the current study questions and our qualitative interview process to tly focus on a range of health-risking behaviors, including drug use and sexual behavior. Health-risking behaviors, such as unprotected sex and drug use, often emerge in adolescence and peak during young adulthood [ 17 ], resulting in immediate developmental consequences and deleterious health outcomes that can persist across the lifespan. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [ 18 ], individuals between ages 15 and 24 comprise half of the nearly 20 million newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections STIs in the United States every year.
Further, more than 1. Although prevalence of STIs and drug use is relatively evenly distributed among adolescent boys and girls [ 111821 ], adolescent girls often bear disproportionate health consequences e.
In addition, adolescent girls have a heightened risk for sexual violence [ 10 ] and addiction once drug use is initiated [ 89 ]. Adolescent and adult women with a Girls y sex dodge of childhood maltreatment are a subgroup at particularly high risk for participating in unsafe sexual behavior [ 24 — 6 ]. Using a large nationally representative sample of young adult women, Hahm, Lee, Ozonoff, and Van Wert [ 22 ] found a ificant cumulative relationship between increased exposure to multiple types of maltreatment and increased risk for STI diagnosis and early sexual contact.
Adults with a history of child maltreatment are also more likely to engage in unprotected sex with casual partners [ 2 ]. Adolescent girls and adult women with a maltreatment history are also more likely to have problems with drug use than their non-maltreated counterparts.
For example, Fettes, Aarons, and Green [ 3 ] compared two nationally representative samples of adolescents and found that adolescents with a maltreatment history were ificantly more at risk for drug use involvement than were those without a maltreatment history. These findings are consistent with research that has documented higher rates of drug use disorders among adolescents with a maltreatment history [ 1 ]. Drug use and unsafe sexual behavior are linked, with adolescents and adults with a history of maltreatment being more likely to have sex while drinking alcohol or using drugs, which often le to unprotected, casual sex [ 4 — 6 ].
Although the elevated risks and serious consequences of unsafe sexual behavior and drug use are fairly well established among adolescent girls with a history of maltreatment, relatively little is known about pathways to these health-risking behaviors among this population [ 23 ] and about pathways to healthy sexual behavior in this population [ 24 ].
The UNESCO resource advocates teaching young people—through skill based learning—how to recognize relationship power dynamics, how to seek help and support, and how to negotiate safe sex practices [ 25 ]. Findings from a review of programs to promote positive youth development PYD suggests that safer sexual behavior tends to be correlated with other positive psychosocial behaviors such as sports, academic activities, and goal setting and that effective PYD programs that target one of these often affect the others [ 24 ].
In addition, the findings from this review of PYD programs suggest that including training and activities related to goal setting, social skills, and engagement in positive social activities can enhance sexual education programs [ 24 ]. One potential pathway linking drug use and sexual behaviors among adolescent girls and young women with a maltreatment history is the influence of their romantic partners. A large body of evidence suggests that child maltreatment is associated with problematic romantic relationships later in life [ 26 ].
Girls y sex dodge girls who select partners who are involved in antisocial behavior, such as drug use and delinquency, appear to be at particular risk for engaging in these behaviors themselves. Additionally, research shows adolescent girls Girls y sex dodge more likely to participate in risky sexual behavior when partners are older than them [ 2930 ], when they are driven by a sense of need to be in a relationship [ 31 ], or when they rely heavily on their partner for emotional or financial support [ 32 ]. Conversely, self-regulation ability to regulate behavior, attention, and emotions is associated with lower sexual risk taking in adolescents, as is parental control and lower levels of negative peer pressure [ 33 ].
In one of the few studies on this topic, women filled out hood sexual abuse questionnaire and then read a sexual scenario involving either alcohol or no alcohol. The authors suggested that women with maltreatment histories might make decisions in different ways than would their non-maltreated peers.
For example, although the majority of the women said that condoms did not reduce sexual pleasure, a quarter of the women still listed reduction in sexual pleasure as a reason they did not use condoms. Although evidence points to the influential role partners play in determining whether or not adolescent girls engage in drug use and sexual behaviors, little is known about the mechanisms underlying partner choice or the degree to which specific partner traits predict health-risking behaviors in the relationship [ 12 ].
Qualitative interviews and analyses were guided by two research questions: 1 How do adolescent girls who have experienced maltreatment choose romantic partners? Our goal for the current study was to learn about malleable relationship-based processes that could be targeted in future preventive interventions with high-risk adolescent and young adult female populations, including those who have experienced maltreatment.
Participants were 15 women with a history of maltreatment. Participants were selected based on having had hood history of maltreatment ascertained vi welfare case worker report and having engaged in sexual behavior as an adolescent ascertained via responses to a questionnaire administered when the participants were adolescents. For the current study, all of the young women participated in an informed consent procedure that was individually administered.
One participant reported that she was married, 6 were living with a partner and unmarried, and 8 were dating or seeing someone but not living together or married.
We used an individually administered, semistructured, and open-ended qualitative interview format and conducted one interview with each participant. Interviews were scheduled for 2 h in duration though the average length was min and ranged from 66 to min. The interview guide included broad, general questions deed to prompt respondents to think retrospectively about their adolescent years and to solicit information about the topics most important to them. Why do you think this might be? All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcriptions were then reviewed by the interviewer for accuracy and completeness.
Participants and other individuals identified in the transcripts were ased an identification to protect confidentiality, increase cross-group comparisons, and reduce subjectivity in the analyses [ 38 ]. After reviewing all the interviews, the authors met and discussed broad themes identified across all transcripts.
Using NVIVO software [ 39 ], the first author completed an initial coding of the broad themes for each interview. Next, a codebook emerged as the first author coded sections of text ranging in size from short phrases to long discussions by hand into more specific emergent subthemes and then compared the coded content across each interview. The constant comparison method [ 40 ] was used to group codes into themes. All authors met to discuss findings related to the broad themes and subthemes and to identify representative quotes.
The two themes are described in the following subsections. Responses to questions about characteristics adolescent girls look for when choosing a partner varied based on the personal interests of the participating women, and they are reviewed in the following subsections. Table 1 displays subthemes with regard to desirable partner characteristics. The theme of adolescent girls looking for rebellious partners emerged in 6 of the 15 interviews. General consensus, nobody wants to go to school.
So when a boy kind of skips school one day, it shows some of, like, freedom that he has and it might attract you. Which is not healthy. Five respondents mentioned that adolescent girls looked for a partner who could support Girls y sex dodge, to help compensate for support they lack at home. The women defined this kind of partner support in various ways, including attention, comfort, or advice; help feeling good about themselves; and the potential of financial support. You know? Three participants mentioned that they thought adolescents were into older or more experienced partners.
I think, like it seemed like they were a lot more free to do as they pleased. And that was somehow attractive. Lots of daddy issues. Most responses to questions about partner influence on adolescent girls related to drug use, talking about safe sex, and practicing safe sex. Each of these subthemes is reviewed in the following subsections. During the interviews, all 15 women identified that they had used drugs as adolescents. The women identified 6 general reasons an adolescent girl might be more likely to use drugs when her partner uses drugs.
These reasons included being accepted or fitting in, pressure, a desire for a common experience, to keep the guy or improve the relationship, the proximity and access to drugs, and curiosity. Five respondents explained that using drugs with a partner is a way to fit in. Um, and just kind of Girls y sex dodge fit in with his crowd. Nine participants talked about how adolescent girls often feel pressure to use drugs when their partner is using.
One participant told a story about how her boyfriend convinced her to use methamphetamine:. But, at the same time he Girls y sex dodge I wanted to use it because it would get me skinny. Went and got everything we needed and then brought it to me and so at that point it was really hard for me to say no. And so what he did is he filled up a syringe of heroin and stuck it in her thigh.
Nine of the women described how doing drugs together gives a couple something in common and an ability to communicate on the same level. My sister had done it [used drugs] here and there, you know. Four participants said that they felt adolescent girls used with their partners because of a hope that it would improve their relationship. Another participant talked about how her boyfriend seemed to be interested in her only when they were using together:. There was a couple times that, like, the guy that I was doing heroin with, that got me into it, there was times that when we were high together he would…spill out everything, all of his feelings to me.
That he was really in love with me and that kinda stuff. And then once he got sober he was the complete opposite. Similarly, another participant explained she had used drugs with her partner for a long time, and the relationship ended when she decided to stop using:.Girls y sex dodge
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Puberty and Adolescent Sexuality